Benefits for all
Asked why NIST participates in IEC work, Arnold explains that the IEC is the preeminent international standards body in the electrotechnical field. Historically, a great number of IEC International Standards have been used in the grid and the IEC continues to develop its portfolio of Standards in that particular area.
Arnold underlines that through active participation, NIST is able to benefit from the work done in the IEC. He cites as an example what has been done in the SG (Strategy Group) 3: Smart Grids , on architecture and roadmaps. NIST is also able to feed back its own requirements and learning to the IEC. All this is helpful for both sides as it allows to further improve standards and to expand the portfolio. At a later stage, knowing that NIST’s requirements have been taken into account, it is much easier for the Institute to adopt and use these standards.
The most complex system ever built
For Arnold, the biggest challenge in updating the electric infrastructure is the complexity of the task itself. In other words, the grid is probably the most complex system that mankind has ever built. It has evolved over the course of 100 years with a lot of technologies at various stages of their lifecycle. He explains that as new systems and operating concepts are introduced, the embedded legacy equipment, that may not have been designed using standards, has to be supported as well, and much of it uses proprietary technologies. Being able to evolve the grid with open standards and more dynamic operation while also supporting the legacy equipment is a very arduous task.
National and international
The role played by NIST is to coordinate all of the standards work for the US. Many different standards bodies all around the world have developed specifications that are used in the electric grid. NIST’s role is to get all the stakeholders together and identify US specific requirements. Therefore NIST works with national standards organizations that develop relevant US standards NIST also works in the IEC to ensure that US needs are integrated into standards so that they can meet the requirements for the US grid.
NIST as catalyst in US Smart Grid development
Arnold explains that NIST’s efforts in Smart Grid development in the US was mandated by the US Congress in 2007 as part of a national policy to modernize the electric grid. NIST has engaged with hundreds of stakeholders in the process, not just the electric utilities – more than 3 000 in the US alone – but also suppliers to the Smart Grid. Those include traditional electric suppliers, information technology companies, communication providers, as well as research institutes, universities and the regulators who oversee the grid. Getting all of these stakeholders to agree on the requirements is a significant challenge, but they are making progress. He adds that standards enable them to take something that is done in one place and then deploy it broadly.